In addition to this, I want to question whether it is possible to display such photographs in a museum without reproducing the colonial gaze. Weakness of will appears to be the most commonsensical understanding of what — if anything — it may mean to lack self-control. Nonetheless, the very idea of weakness of will seems to be harder to grasp than one may think at first glance. Against this background, chapter 2 argues that the conceptualization of lack of self-control as weakness of will is sensible, albeit under certain conditions only. Weakness of will and its opposite of willpower apply only if the following preconditions are fulfilled.
A person can realize a goal with the help of her willpower only, if i she is able to realize the goal, if ii she cares about her goal, and if iii in her eyes the goal is clear, well-defined and not conflicting with any of her other goals. The analysis of weakness of will as an instance of lack of self-control then provides the strategy for the remaining discussion.
Chapters Three through Five argue that self-control remains at stake even if one of these preconditions are not fulfilled. They then develop respective — normative — accounts of self-control. Chapter 3 introduces how self-control is a capacity and depends on certain skills and strategies. It argues that people can be in a condition where, for psychological reasons, they are unable to achieve certain goals.
There is something between weakness of will on the one hand and compulsion on the other. This will be called a psychological incapacity. Unlike people who suffer from compulsion, those who are psychologically incapable could exercise self-control.
However, unlike those who are merely weak-willed, they could do so only under certain circumstances and are in need of specific skills and strategies. Chapter 4 introduces the self-determination theory of R. Ryan and E. Deci as a further approach to self-control.
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Those who are self-determined control their behaviour because they are intrinsically motivated to do so and consider their goals to be of great importance. It explains what it means to lack such a concern and to be unconcerned. Unconcern, in turn is an instance of failure of self-determination and therefore should count as a further variety of what it means to lack self-control. Chapter 5 focuses on the role of self in self-control.
It introduces the possible relevance of personality-science for the question of self-control. By means of a sophisticated understanding of the notion of self, it appears to be possible to point out how people may exercise or fail to exercise self-control in case they have conflicting goals.
Moreover, it appears that in such cases the very difference between successful and unsuccessful exercises of self-control cannot be traced back to any overt behaviour but fully depends on whether or not the person is adequately involved in the behaviour she conducts. The book ends with some general conclusions that point out the various meanings that a normative account of self-control has for common sense, for philosophical purposes, and for psychological investigations respectively.
More Info: PhD thesis, a limited amount of hard copies are available, please send me a message if you are interested. A Reply to Gilbert, Viana and Ineichen more. Gilbert et al. They argue that there is only a small empirical base for an extended ethics debate. We will critically examine their claims and argue that Gilbert and colleagues do not show that the identity debate in DBS is a bubble, they in fact give very little evidence for that.
Rather they show the challenges of doing research in a field that is stretched out over multiple disciplines. In that sense their paper is an important starting point for a discussion on methodology and offers valuable lessons for a future research agenda. Botsende belangen more. Zelfbeheersing en opvoeding, Filosofische reflectie op een neurowetenschappelijke benadering more. Education , Philosophy of Education , Neuroethics , and Self-control. The Importance of the Self for Autonomous Behavior more.
Neuroscientific findings have often been argued to undermine notions of free will and to require far-reaching changes of our political and legal systems. Making a difference between the metaphysical notion of free will and the political Making a difference between the metaphysical notion of free will and the political notion of autonomy, Dubljevic argues this switchover to be mistaken. While we appreciate attention to the social limits of neuroscientific findings, we also have a twofold concern with his proposal. The first covers the nontransparent way in which he either rejects or embraces certain scientific findings, which renders the background and motivation of his argument unclear.
View on dx. Ethische overwegingen bij behandeling met diepe hersenstimulatie more.
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De ethische problemen De ethische problemen die zich rondom deze behandeling voordoen zijn niet wezenlijk anders dan die welke zich voordoen bij andere medische behandelingen. De ethische basisprincipes, 'niet schaden', 'weldoen', 'respect voor autonomie' en 'rechtvaardigheid' geven in het algemeen voldoende houvast om richting te geven aan de klinische beslissingen die in het kader van DBS genomen moeten worden.
Gezien de meer ingrijpende en invasieve aard van behandeling met DBS is wel extra zorgvuldigheid vereist bij de indicatiestelling en bij beslissingen met betrekking tot het staken van deze therapie. The ethics of novel neurotechnologies; Focus on research ethics and on moral values more.
In their presentation of the ethics of decoded neurofeedback DNF , Nakazawa et al in press provide an interesting reflection on a potentially new neuro-intervention hitherto unaddressed. I agree with them that pro-active ethical I agree with them that pro-active ethical analyses of emerging neuro-technologies are of crucial importance. Nonetheless, I have a twofold concern with their approach. First, their extensive discussion on possible therapeutic uses of DNF p.
They seem to intermingle the option of treating people with the necessity to conduct scientific research on the safety and efficacy of DNF.
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From an ethical point of view, however, there are important differences between medical care and medical research. Second, the authors claim that DNF can be applied for moral neuroenhancement p. Their ethical analysis of the risks and benefits in this context, however, focuses solely on procedural issues — moral pluralism, ir reversibility, adverse effects —, but does not pay attention to questions of content. Leaving out moral values, however, renders one unable to distinguish between kind people made kinder and racist people rendered more racist.
As a consequence, we cannot yet determine which potential implications are indeed advantageous or worrisome. Zorg voor kwetsbare kinderen of maatschappelijke veiligheid? Vroege preventie van antisociaal gedrag ASG in het jeugdstelsel, Ethische en maatschappelijke aspecten more. Kinderen en jeugdigen die zich agressief gedragen en jeugdcriminaliteit zorgen geregeld voor grote sociale onrust.
Het terug dringen hiervan wordt door velen dan ook als een belangrijk maatschappelijk doel beschouwd. Vaak klinkt de roep Vaak klinkt de roep om strenge straffen. Recent wetenschappelijk onderzoek wijst echter steeds nadrukkelijker op het belang van vroege preventie. Als men kinderen met een risico op een gedragsstoornis al op heel jonge leeftijd zou identificeren, dan zou men deze problemen beter kunnen voorkomen. De verwachtingen over hieromtrent zijn vaak hooggespannen.
Idealiter is vroege preventie niet alleen beter voor betrokken kinderen en gezinnen, maar ook voor de publieke veiligheid. Ook biedt het jeugdstelsel voor verschillende leeftijdsgroepen preventieve interventies aan. Op het eerste gezicht lijkt het vanzelfsprekend dit toe te juichen. Voorkomen is toch beter dan genezen? Anderzijds zijn er ook vragen. Willen we echt wel alle kinderen gaan screenen? Wat doet het met kinderen die mogelijk onterecht als zodanig worden aangemerkt?
Gaat het bij preventie vooral om ontwikkelings- en gedragsproblemen? Of ook om het effectief voorkomen van jeugddelinquentie?